Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768) in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv

Miglena V. Valkanova, Ivelin A. Mollov, Bogdan N. Nikolov

University of Plovdiv "Paisii Hilendarski", Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Conservation, 24 Tzar Assen Str., 4000-Plovdiv, BULGARIA, E-mail:
Abstract. The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis) in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42), the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases), followed by killing by humans (usually children) – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2%) and domestic cats (2%) has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans) affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant difference between the mortalities of the two sexes was detected.
Key words: mortality, urban environment, green toad, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Ecologia Balkanica, 2009, vol. 1, pp. 21-26.
Article № EB-01-2009_RA_05, ICID: 
905608, [Full text - PDF]pdf 

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