A Case Study of Allelopathic Effect on Weeds in Wheat

Slaveya T. Petrova1*, Ekaterina G. Valcheva2, Iliana G. Velcheva1
1 - University of Plovdiv "Paisii Hilendarski", Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Conservation, 24 Tzar Assen Str., 4000, Plovdiv, BULGARIA
2 - Agricultural University, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Department of Agroecology and Protection of Agroecosystems and Population, 12 Mendeleev Blvd., 4000 Plovdiv, BULGARIA
* Corresponding author: sl.petrova@abv.bg

Abstract. Most powerful and effective method of weed control is by chemical substances called herbicides. In recent years, they were published quite data on different side effects of herbicides on humans, animals, crops and the environment as a whole. Therefore, the increased interest for biological weed control lately is reasonable, since its improvement and expansion will contribute to limiting excessive use of herbicides, respectively their harmful effects and will support the successful implementation of complex weed control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of selected plant species, containing allelopathic active substances, on germination, growth and biomass of some widespread weeds in wheat. Experiments were carried out at laboratory conditions using seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., sort Sadovo 1) and most common weeds therein: Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L) Pers), white pigweed (Chenopodium album L.), twitch (Cynodon dactylon L.) and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.). Allelopathic substances were extracted with distilled water from flowers of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), leaves of spearmint (Mentha longifolia (L) Huds.), and leaves of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Of the tested active allelopathic plants, the most negative impact on germination of all weeds seeds (including wheat), as well as on the development of plants exhibited the water extract of lavender. Lavender and basil had a stronger negative effect on white pigweed and twitch compared with both mint species. A significant inhibitory effect of spearmint even at low concentrations was recorded on the germination of all weed species tested while the wheat was slightly affected, which manifests this plant as a potential effective species in strategies for weed control management.

Key words: allelopathy, weed control, wheat, laboratory experiment.
Ecologia Balkanica, 2015, vol. 7, Issue 1, pp.121-129

Article № eb.15122, ICID: 1164571 [Full text - PDF]pdf

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