Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Pesticide Lambada 5EK (Lambda- Cyhalothrin) on Sweet and Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) and Onion (Allium cepa) In Vivo
Teodora P. Popova*, Alexander V. Mustafov, Gergana I. Stankova, Elena D. Apostolova
University of Plovdiv "Paisii Hilendarski", Faculty of Biology, 24, Tzar Assen Str., 4000 Plovdiv, BULGARIA *Corresponding author: email@example.com
Abstract. The aim of the present work was to study the potential mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of synthetic pyrethroid insecticide Lambada 5EK in the root meristems of some vegetables. Two concentrations of the pesticide were investigated (0.03% - recommended in agricultural practices, and tenfold lower concentration - 0.003%), and three plant-species, widely used as food, were tested - sweet and hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.). The results obtained regarding the influence of pesticide on mitotic cell division and chromosome status showed that the species have different sensitivity towards the pesticide action. The hot pepper was the most sensitive of all the tested plant species towards the impact of the pesticide in mitosis, and lower mitotic index values were recorded in both tested concentrations compared to the control. The most common observed chromosomal aberrations were: anaphase/telophase bridges, lagging acentric chromosome and/or chromosome fragments, and cells with micronuclei; they were found in all tested plant species, except beetroot treated with 0.003% solution of the pesticide. These results suggested that the beetroot possesses some endurance to the mutagenic action of thе insecticide and probably it is an appropriate culture in crop rotation in agricultural practice when lambda-cyhalothrin pesticides have been used.
Key words: genotoxicity, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, lambda- cyhalothrin, vegetables.